When Trolley Buses ran in Bradford

Bradford's last Trolley Bus showing it's last route.

Here's a trip down memory lane for me, and I suspect many other Bradfordians, with memories of my early years growing up in Bradford. Whilst going through some old photos recently, I was reminded about the early 1960’s.... going to and from school on local public transport at the time…the electrically powered Trolley Bus!

Looking at public transport today, the Trolley Bus might seem a modern, clean, efficient and ecologically friendly means of travel, and indeed this transport system is still in in use throughout the world to this day, but in 1960’s Bradford, it seemed a very old fashioned way of travelling to me, as a young lad looking at stories of the time on TV of astronauts travelling in  rockets into space.

My journeys to and from school were always on the Trolley Bus in winter, when the weather was too bad to go on my bike, and I remember how quiet and smooth the buses were, being run by an electric motor instead of an diesel engine changing gear all the time.

All would go well until one of the two poles came off the overhead wire, and then the conductor would have to get off, go to the rear of the bus and pull out a long pole with a hook on the end, which was carried in a tube under the bus. He would then have to hook the contact rod on the bus roof, and place it back on the wire overhead….no health and safety procedure in those days!

 I can still remember the interior of the later model buses, which were fairly basic, to say the least. Not much heating and vinyl seats, which although very hard wearing were not very comfortable, especially on a winter's morning for a schoolboy who was still wearing short trousers!

Trolley top deck
 Yet another task the conductor needed to be carried out at some road junctions and the terminus was to to get off  and manually pull a handle, sometimes called a 'Frog', on the pole at the roadside to move the wires across, similarly to a set of train line points, so the bus could go around the corner onto a new road or into the terminus, The picture below shows the conductor pulling the frog on the Thornton route at Four-Lane-Ends…nothing was automatic then.

Pulling the 'Frog'


Another memory I have is when on one morning on the way to school, we were suffering from heavy smog in the air. Bradford had lots of bad smog days, due to the high pollution in the area from all the wool mill chimneys [over 100 at one time]. All these mills were belching out black smoke from burning coal, and it was sometimes so bad you could hardly see your hand in front of your face! Anyway, it was so bad on this particular day that the driver could not see where he was going, to such an extent that the conductor had to get off and walk in front of the bus waving a white handkerchief.


Men at work!
 I can also remember always seeing vehicles such as this one all around the area, with a gang of workmen repairing broken wires, which seemed to be a regular occurrence.

Bradford in fact, was the last city in the country to use Trolley Buses, and time finally ran out for them in 1972, when the Council's Transport Committee decided to move over to a more modern form of public transport without the need for overhead wires.

For anyone not familiar with this form of transport, a trolley bus is an electric bus that draws its electricity from overhead wires using two spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit, unlike a tram or streetcar, which normally uses the track as part of the electrical path and thus needs only one wire and pole. Bradford’s Trolley Bus system was a follow on from the earlier Tram system, and because it did not run on tracks, it was know in its early days as the “Trackless”.



The Bradford trolleybus system served the city of Bradford for much of the 20th century. It was one of the first two trolley bus systems to be opened in the United Kingdom along with the Leeds system. Both systems commenced operations on 20 June 1911, and as far as Bradford Councillors  were concerned, the move from Tram to Trolley Bus was a bit of a none event, as the enclosed newspaper clipping of the time reported.... The first Trolley run was at 5am, so no one from the Transport Committee bothered to turn up!



  The Bradford system lasted the longest of all the UK's urban trolleybus systems. Having been one of the first such systems to open, it finally finished on 26 March 1972. Just before its closure, it also held the distinction of being the longest-lived surviving trolleybus system in the world.

Many of the former Bradford trolleybuses are now preserved at various locations around the UK. The last one to run in Bradford, number 884, on the Thornton route, is usually housed in the Keighley Bus Museum, and there are others on display in Bradford's Industrial Museum.

Trolley on the Clayton route

The is a very informative 8 minute film on-line, which shows the last Trolley Bus journey on Bus number 844, and gives a vivid insight into what it was like to drive and ride on a Trolley Bus, together with a commentary by retired drivers and passengers. It can be viewed by clicking here. [courtesy of the Yorkshire Film Archive]


Since the demise of the Trolley Bus service in Bradford, the system has flourished elsewhere. Today around 300 trolleybus systems are in operation around the world, in cities and towns in 43 countries

Jabez Bancroft and the Royal Horse Guards Regiment

Painting of battle scene from Vitoria

A fellow Bancroft researcher sent me some old army discharge papers for a Jabez Bancroft which tell an interesting story about a man whose origins are a bit of a mystery.

We know that Jabez Bancroft was born around 1772, probably in the Haworth area of Yorkshire. No records seem to exist of his baptism in the area, so it may well be that he was illegitimate or baptised under a different name. Some of this confusion may be due to the different spelling of the name 'Jabez', because he is also listed slightly differently on various records as 'Jabus' or 'Jabes', which points to the fact that it was not an easy name to spell or pronounce, so people wrote it down as they heard it. The name Jabez, [pronounced Jay-bez] is not that uncommon in this area of Yorkshire, and is of Hebrew in origin…. its meaning is ‘borne in pain’ which possibly points to difficulties his mother had in childbirth….who knows?

Discharge Paper


Anyway, the first we know about Jabez is from his army discharge papers....where he is listed as 'Jabus Bancroft'. We know he enlisted as a Private Trooper in the Royal Horse Guards Regiment on 17th December 1791 at the age of about 19 years, and spent the next 22 years and 234 days as a soldier with them. His discharge papers show that he left the regiment at the age of 42 years because he was suffering from “rheumatic, which reoccurred when on duty with his Regiment abroad…which rendered him unfit for future service”. 
 Interestingly, the papers also give a brief description of him as "5 feet 11 inches in height, brown hair, brown eyes, brown complexion, by trade a weaver"

Discharge Paper


From army records we know he served latterly at the Battle of Vitoria in Spain in 1813, where a British Army, under General the Marquess of Wellington, together with Portuguese and Spanish armies broke the French army under Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Jourdan, eventually leading to victory in the Peninsular War.
Wellington launched his attack at Vitoria on 21 June, in four columns. After hard fighting, The soldiers of the 3rd Division broke the enemy's centre and soon the French defence crumbled. About 5,000 French soldiers were killed or wounded and 3,000 were taken prisoner, while British, Spanish and Portuguese soldiers suffered about 5,000 killed or wounded. 151 cannons were captured, but Joseph Bonaparte, erstwhile King of Spain, narrowly escaped. The battle led to the collapse of Napoleonic rule in Spain.
The British forces consisted of 57,000 men and suffered 3700 deaths and wounded during the battle, and at the age of over 40 years, Jabez must have been struggling to keep up with the younger men, because medical reports show he was hospitalized in August 1814 with rheumatism, possibly made worse by serving abroad, and then quickly discharge.
The following form is an army register showing Jabez as a claimant, probably of his army pension, and lists him as having served at the time of the Battle of Vitoria [sometimes spelt Vittoria]

Army record of claimants

Once discharged, he settled back into normal life, and took up his trade again as a weaver. He seems to have married a young widowed lady, of about 35 years of age, called Elizabeth Naylor at Bingley Parish Church on 10th November 1816, and as can be seen from the marriage record, neither Jabez or Elizabeth could write their name, so just put their X mark on the register. [The fact that Jabez could not write, and so probably could not read either, might be the reason why his name is spelt in at least 3 different ways on documents. The person who wrote the parish record, was obviously fooled by Elizabeth's relatively young age to to be a widow, because he initially marked her down as a spinster, before altering it to widow.]

Jabez & Elizabeth marriage 1816


Arthur Bell Nicholls


By the time of the 1841 census, Jabez and Elizabeth, known as 'Betty' were living at New Road Side, in the Bingley Parish, his occupation still listed as a weaver, and Jabez's death is record in 1849 in the Haworth Church records. The service being conducted by  Arthur Bell Nicholls, the curate of Rev'd Patrick Bronte, who had married his daughter, the novelist, Charlotte Bronte.

Jabez Burial Record 1849

Betty continued to live in the same area, and the 1851 shows her listed as a widow living alone at nearby Lower Pease Close with her occupation shown as "Annuitant Weaver Formally" which would mean that she was able to live on an income from somewhere....possibly her late husband's army pension based on his 22 years service?

1851 census

John Bancroft drowned after a drinking bout.



The following story was reported in the Keighley press of 7th January 1913 entitled “ A Baildon Bridge Mystery” concerning a John Bancroft, who it seems fell in the canal and drowned after a bout of drinking:

The body had been found by Charles Simmons, a boatman of Baildon, who found it floating in the canal and the newspaper reported on the incident as follows:
'At Shipley today, the District Coroner held an enquiry on John Bancroft [24] , woolcomber of 10 Croft Street, Keighley, whose body was recovered from the Leeds and Liverpool Canal at Baildon Bridge on Sunday.
Ann Thomas, wife of Joshua Thomas, of Raglan Street, Shipley, said that her husband and Bancroft worked in the same mill. As they did not arrive back home at the proper time after the night turn, she went out in the morning and found them at an hotel. They went home with her, and she gave them something to eat and drink.
The Coroner asked -  What was their condition? – 'They were fairish on in beer, but they knew what they were doing.'
When Bancroft left it was raining, and witnesses asked him if he could manage by himself? – 'Yes' was the answer.
The police evidence was given that the body appeared to have been in the water for about three weeks.
The jury returned a verdict of ' Found Drowned', there being not sufficient evidence to show how he got into the water.

John Bancroft seems to have been a single man, who originally came from Liverpool, and was lodging in various houses in Keighley. At the time of his death he was lodging at Croft Street, and previous to that the 1911 census shows him as lodging with a family who also had several other lodgers at 'The Walk' in Keighley. The census also confirms his occupation as a woolcomber in a Spinning Mill

1911 census



By the early 20th century, Temperance Societies although now very much in decline, were still preaching their warnings about the evils of drink......Perhaps John Bancroft should have heeded their warning!

Two Bancroft Brothers killed in WW1




Temple Street Chapel WW1 Plaque




Following on from the previous story about the finding of a long lost WW1 memorial plaque which can be read by clicking here, and to coincide with Remembrance Day, here is the story of the two Bancroft brothers, James and Robert, who were listed as the first two names on the plaque.




James Mitchell Bancroft was born in Keighley in 1888 and initially worked as at a drapers shop in the town, before working as a clerk in the Keighley Educational Offices. The local newspaper said he ‘had an unassuming disposition and was very popular with his colleagues and friends’. He was closely involved with the Temple Street Chapel Sunday School as a teacher and secretary there.










Medal Index Card



He signed up as a Private in the Duke of Wellington’s Regiment, and spent about 12 months serving on the front in France. At that time the family had three sons servicing on the front, and another working in munitions, after having served on the front for 12 months.




 The circumstances of James’s death are outlined in the following War Diary, which states that the Regiment were camped on the Mory East Road and received heavy shelling to the A and D Companies with a list of deaths and injured. At the bottom of the page, dated 26th April 1917,  is says:
 “ 267111 Pte JM Bancroft died in hospital of wounds received on April 18th

War Diary-April 1917
This terrible news that the family must have been dreading, was in a message received by them on 27th April 1917, when the Army Chaplin wrote:
“ Your son was brought into the hospital a few days ago, badly wounded. I saw him twice and he seemed very cheerful, and spoke about his home and church etc. I thought he would recover, but yesterday he took a turn for the worst and passed away last night. Everything was done for his comfort, and I don’t think he suffered very much. I buried him today in the ……. military cemetery. Please accept my sincere sympathy. He had laid down his life for his friends. May you be comforted and strengthened through this awful trial.” [The exact location of the military cemetery was purposely left black presumably for security reasons.]


A second message from a Second-Lieutenant K Chapman, of the West Yorkshire Regiment, wrote to his father:
“ I wish to let you know that you have the deepest sympathy from myself and all your son’s comrades in your sad bereavement. His loss will be keenly felt be all, for he was always cheery and an excellent soldier. I personally felt it very much indeed, for I have known him all my life. It will perhaps comfort you to know that he will be laid to rest alongside others of his brave comrades, who died doing their duty.”

The following notices then appeared in the Keighley News, which sum up exactly what a desperate time it must have been for the family.

Keighley News notices
James was buried at the Achiet Le Grand Cemetery on 26th April 1917, and here is his grave, together with a view of the whole cemetery….James’s grave is on the front row.



 
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Robert Edgar Bancroft’s story is a bit more of a mystery, because nothing of the circumstances of his death seems to have been reported in the local media, and no picture of him seem to exist.

We know he was born in 1893 in Keighley and prior to joining up was an assistant to his father, James, in his second hand furniture shop in the town.

Medal Index Card

Records show that he initially signed up at Halifax in the Duke of Wellington’s Regiment on 10th December 1915 at the age of 22yrs 4 months as a reservist, and was mobalised on 20th October 1916. Strangely, although he signed up in the Duke of Wellington’s Regiment his posting was with the Highland Light Infantry, with his army number stayed the same as 42142.

Army Service Record
He obviously must have had some home leave because he married Carrie Goodwin at St Mary’s  Church, Keighley on 9th January 1917, shortly before he was posted abroad to France on 26th February. Their first and only child, Ethel Rose, appeared very shortly afterwards on 7th June 1917.

The circumstances of Robert’s war details are somewhat sketchy, but it seems that he was then reported ‘missing’ on 25th March 1918 on the Somme battlefields, near the French village of Maricourt, where the Highland Light Infantry's 12th Division were involved in prolonged heavy fighting. The war diary for that day show no mention of Robert by name, but during that week they reported 33 killed, 183 wounded and 110 missing so it is not surprising that he is not named in the records at the time, due to the heavy casualties.

Robert being reported as 'missing', must have left his wife Carrie and baby daughter in difficult circumstances, because the following  desperately sad document shows her applying for a pension to support herself and her child on the 18th November of that year, seven months after him being declared 'missing'....presumably the delay in her being able to claim a widow's pension was due to the fact that he was in initially declared 'missing' rather than 'dead'. 

Pension Application

There is no grave of resting place for Robert, presumably because his body was never recovered from the conflict, but he is mentioned on the inscriptions at the Pozieres Monument, where 97 panels are inscribed with the 14,655 names of the missing casualties. These panels are incorporated in the southern, western and northern boundary walls surrounding Pozières British Cemetery.

Pozieres British Cemetery.

Pozieres Inscriptions

 The inscription of the cemetery gates reads:
"In memory of the officers and men of the Fifth and Fourth Armies who fought on the Somme battlefields 21 March – 7 August 1918 and to those of their dead who have no known grave"

After the end of the war in 1924, Keighley's War Committee had decided to erect a war memorial  in the centre of the town, and at the same time decided that a record of names should be compiled of those who had fought and fallen in the Great War so a 'Roll of Honour' book was compiled and placed in Keighley's Public Library as a lasting tribute to their sacrifice. Both James and Robert's names  appear in the book.








[I am grateful to the Men of Worth project for help with this article . Their website is here]

Isaac Bancroft drowned alongside Lord Kitchener


Usually when I research an article about casualties in WW1, it involves Bancroft soldiers in the Army, but here for a change is a story of a Bancroft man  who enlisted in the Royal Navy, as an Able Seaman during peacetime, and who later drowned on a ship carrying the famous Lord Kitchener on his journey to Russia to take part in a military meeting during WW1.


 Isaac Bancroft was born on 27th June 1886 in the Ovenden area of Halifax, West Yorkshire, the son of Robert Bancroft and Ann Broadbent, who had married shortly before the birth of their son earlier on 23rd May 1886 at Halifax Parish Church


Isaac looks as though he had a poor start in life, because within two years of his being born, his father Robert died, leaving his mother Ann to bring the child up single handed, as the following 1891 census shows.


It looks as though life didn't improve much for young Isaac because by the time of the next census in 1901, he was now living with his maternal Grandmother, Fanny Broadbent, still in the Halifax area, and at the tender age of 14 years was now working as a labourer. There seems no trace of his mother Ann, so it's possible she had either remarried or died.

 It is therefore not surprising that, given this poor start in life, at the age of 18 years  he decided to join the Royal Navy on 24th June 1904 and seems to have signed up for a 12 year period, as the following navy record shows.Interestingly it also gives a brief description of Isaac's height, eye and skin colour etc, and even details of a tattoo he had!

The records show that after joining up, he was allocated initially to a ship called the 'Caladonia' and then served on a variety of vessels before joining the crew of the ill-fated ' HMS Hampshire' on 5th June 1915. It appears from his record that he tried to leave the Royal Navy and transfer to to the Canadian Navy on 23th July 1915, but this request was turned down because he was not a volunteer, and was still bound by his peace-time agreement to serve a full 12 years with the Royal Navy from when he originally signed up in 1904.


Navy Record


 Shortly before transferring to the Hampshire, Isaac married Edith May Oakshott in Portsmouth in February 1915 and their address was given as 41 All Saints Road, Landport, Portsmouth at that time. They had a son, Robert G Bancroft, who was born in early 1916, a few months before his father's death.

Had Isaac survived the war, the records show that he would have been entitled to the 1914-19 Star, the General Service and Victory medals.

Lord Kitchener, the famous Colonial and Boer War veteran - and a Cabinet Minister during WW1, was a prominent figure of the time and had been the face of the early wartime recruitment drive in the  famous "Your Country Needs You!" recruiting posters, [as shown at the beginning of this article.] In June 1916 he was on a mission to meet Russian war chiefs at the invitation of the Emperor on the matter of the reorganisation of the latter’s military forces and discussion of a scheme for the increased output of munitions. His colleagues tried hard to persuade him to postpone his visit to Russia because beyond the land-locked harbour, in which lay the Hampshire, the seas around the 0rkneys were raging at that time.





The ship set sail on Monday 5th June 1916, destined for Russia but about 1 to 2 miles off Marwick Head in Orkney, by 7.50 pm H.M.S. Hampshire struck a German mine and sunk. According to official MOD records the ship's full compliment at the time of sailing was 655 men plus 7 passengers who were Lord Kitchener and his staff.

Only 12 men survived the tragedy, and one of them later described his eye-witness experience to the media in the following graphic details:

"And it was at this very moment that above the treble whine of the gale there imposed itself the deeper ominous note of an explosion. The ship lurched. There was a dreadful grating noise somewhere in the bowels of the vessel, like flints flung into the delicate mechanism of machinery. The fierce hiss of escaping steam. The sluice of rushing water. The confused trample of feet above. Shouting. Urgent shouting. There was a rather alarming slant about the floor of the messroom. There had been many that night. But this one didn’t seem to be righting itself. Then the lights flickered out. We made for the deck. It took a long time to get there. The only open hatchway was aft. The messroom was forward. There was a lot of water in the corridors,gushing water. There was a great deal of excitable congestion at the companionways. I came up on to the half deck. They were saying that the Hampshire had struck a mine. It had exploded on the port side of her foremost engine-room. A boiler had been burst. But the Hampshire was well down by the head. Heeling a little to starboard, too.  Men were hurrying to their boat stations. Some were already there. The boats were filling.  I was in charge of the Carley raft stations to starboard.I hurried to my position. There were orders being shouted. They were mostly caught in the gale and lost. There seemed to be difficulty in lowering some of the boats. Of course they were electrically controlled, and the current had failed. The wind howled. Immeasurable banks of waves burst in shivering cascades over the decks. Now they had managed to lower one of the boats. It had fifty men in it. It could not get away from the ship. Its ropes were cut. A wave sucked it sharply to its crest. Next minute it was swept against the Hampshire’s side with terrific force. Nothing but a tangled mass of bodies struggling for survival among a swirling flotsam.And then Lord Kitchener came on deck. He looked grave and calm. I had a curious thought. It was that he looked as though he might have appeared at that moment, not for self-preservation but regretfully to inspect the irreparable damage to a proud vessel. But an officer shouted, “Make way for Lord Kitchener,” and the men who stood around made a passage among themselves. He was close to my station now. He was talking in turn to two naval officers, one on either side of him. He was in khaki. He was hatless. He wore no overcoat. Closely, he looked tired and worn.The Hampshire had heeled much further to starboard. And then Lord Kitchener turned back. The captain had called to him to come up to the fore bridge. He mounted the ladder. I saw the captain’s boat being hoisted. That was the last I saw of Lord Kitchener. There was little doubt now that the Hampshire was doomed. She listed still further. Clouds of steam were emerging from her foremost engine room on the starboard side. Men were now jumping into the water from the quarterdeck.  Some of them had been badly scalded.  Others showed wounds that bled.There was a rush to my raft.  We cut the lashings and managed to launch it. Forty or fifty crowded on and several of us paddled in a frenzy of haste to get clear of the fast-sinking ship. As we drew away several of the injured leaped on the raft into our midst. I shall never forget their agoniscd screams as the salt water washed their wounds. We were fifty yards away. A hundred waist-deep in creaming surf.  Tossed hither and thither on the waves, whirled with maelstrom fierceness. A good many were almost immediately swept from the raft by the fury of the water.We were now away from the Hampshire.  Boats, still crammed with men, hung from her derricks. And then, with a fearful kind of slow lurch, the ship rolled over. I closed my eyes. It was unbearable......."



The bodies of over 100 officers and men, including that of Isaac Bancroft,  were recovered from the sea and were interred into one common grave where they now lay to rest at the Lyness Cemetery, Hoy, Orkney. The other 550 bodies were never recovered.


Lyness Military Cemetery

 Lord Kitchener's body was also never recovered, and in 1926 the Kitchener Memorial, a 48-feet high  stone tower, was unveiled on the cliffs at Marwick Head, looking out across the Atlantic from the west coast of Mainland Orkney. And although the memorial, which was paid for by public subscription, formed a fitting memorial to this important military figure, a plaque on its wall made only a brief reference to the other men lost on HMS Hampshire with him.

Kitchener Monument

WW1 Memorial Plaque nearly lost again.... forever!





 Here is the interesting story of a WW1 memorial plaque which had been presumed to be lost since the 1970’s but turned up recently, as part of a house clearance in Keighley, and was then nearly lost again.forever....thrown out with the rubbish!

The plaque had originally been on display in Temple Street Chapel Keighley, but when the Chapel closed in 1978, the plaque disappeared, and for many years was thought to be lost. Alongside the plaque in the Chapel were a pair of WW1 memorial stained glass windows, which are now on permanent display at Cliffe Castle Museum in Keighley, and which helped to confirm the identity of the plaque because of some similarity in the wording.









 [Copyright- 2011 Keighley Shared  Church Ecumenical Council]







                                   

And that is how the mystery of the plaque's disappearance  was for many years until, as part of a house clearance, the it was found left outside a house on Chelsea Street, Keighley, alongside some wheelie bins and a pile of rubbish, and was saved in the nick of time before being collected with the rest of the house rubbish and lost forever. It can only be assumed that a thoughtful parishioner from the Chapel had taken the plaque home for safe keeping when the chapel closed in 1978, and it had been sat in their attic ever since.

Luckily a sharp-eyed member of the public noticed it as they were walking past the property and alerted the 'Men of Worth' project , who are a group of local volunteers who research and record details of local war heroes. After negotiation with the police to decide on ownership of the plaque, it was passed to the group and they have now donated  it to Cliffe Castle Museum, to sit alongside the Temple Street Chapel windows, already on display there.

On closer examination of the names on the plaque, the first two names refer to James Mitchell Bancroft and Robert Edgar Bancroft, who were brothers lost in WW1. They were the sons of James and Rose Bancroft, who had a total of eleven children, although two died at an early age.

WW1 must have been a worrying time for James [Senior] and the family with, at one point, four sons service in the war in France.

1911 census
A few years before the start of WW1 the 1911 census shows James [senior], who by now was a widower, having lost his wife Rose  in 1904, living at 23 Aireworth Street, Keighley with seven of his nine living children. Included on the census are James Mitchell age 23 yrs and Robert Edgar age 17 years. At that time James [senior] describes himself as a ‘Broker Furniture’ and ran a second hand furniture shop in nearby Bridge Street, whilst his son James looks to have been working in a draper's shop, and son Robert was helping his father in his shop.

Temple Steet Chapel

The family lived within a few hundred yards of Temple Street Chapel and seems to have had strong connections with it, as James [junior] is know to have been a teacher and secretary of the junior department, or Sunday School, and other family members also worshipped and were married at the chapel.

Temple St Chapel interior






As far as the history of the chapel is concerned, briefly it was opened as a Wesleyan Methodist Chapel on 27th November 1846 with a capacity of seating 1,600 worshippers. It prospered for many years but it became increasingly difficult to continue, due to the cost of maintaining such a large building with a dwindling membership. Discussions were opened to set up  a shared agreement with the nearby Keighley Parish Church and  a sharing agreement was eventually signed, and the Chapel finally closed it's doors in 1978,

The final service at the Chapel was reported as follows in the Keighley News at the time.


 The Temple Street Chapel premises were sold to the local Council for £36,000, with presumably anything of value removed, including the plaque and stained glass windows, and it eventually became a Muslim Mosque, which it continues to be to the present time.



Temple St Memorial Plaque
Details of James and Robert's WW1 stories can be read here

[I am grateful to the Men of Worth project for help with this article . Their website is here]

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As a postscript, the final chapter to this story has now taken place. This WW1 plaque was put on display recently alongside the stained glass windows from Temple Street Chapel. This story can be read by clicking here.